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The Security Council could strengthen this approach by avoiding a pre-scripted language of mandate that overempts support for certain political processes or peace agreements. Instead, the Council could set strategic objectives and leave it to mission management to decide how best to achieve those objectives and the central role that the peace agreement should play. The adoption of this approach, based on stakeholder analysis, could help both the Security Council and heads of mission to implement the HIPPO report`s demand for “primacy of politics”, without limiting their efforts to the often erroneous framework conditions of peace agreements.  Data are from the Council on Foreign Relations, Women`s participation in peace processes.  UN Women`s Analysis on National and Local Action Plans on Women, Peace and Security. 29. September 2020, New York – The United Nations and the European Union today signed, on the margins of the 75th session of the General Assembly, an agreement to strengthen cooperation and strengthen the collective response to peace operations and crisis management. 58 See Wallensteen & Sollenberg, a.i.a., note 1, at 343 (some of the peace agreements being classified in these situations as `partial agreements`). 26 Joint Declaration on Peace: The Downing Street Declaration, 15 December 1993, Ir.-U.K.; and the statement by the Taoiseach, Mr. Albert Reynolds, on the Joint Declaration of Peace (15 December 1993) of . 141 This difficulty reinforces the argument that peace agreements face particular difficulties in implementing in formal democratic States. See Campbell, Colm &Fionnuala, Ní Aoláin, The Paradox of Transition in Conflicted Democracies, 27 Hum. Rts.
Q. 172 (2005). These states are most likely to have an earlier constitutional order that functions, from which they can attack constitutional manifestations of the peace agreement. Declaration by the Contracting Parties. B to the Agreement between Ireland and the United Kingdom of 19 April 2004, Ir.-UK, <Mz` (Anglo-Irish Agreement on the reinterpretation of the citizenship provisions of the Belfast Agreement to take account of Irish immigration).  United Nations Security Council (2020). Report of the Secretary-General on women`s peace and security (S/2020/946), para. 22. The data come from the Peace Agreements database (PA-X) which is managed by the University of Edinburgh. MINUSCA`s political strategy, based on stakeholder analysis, provides a useful model for other heads of peacekeeping missions.
Many peacekeeping missions have faced the challenge of the stalemate in peace agreements in recent years, and the stakeholder analysis approach could offer heads of mission another way to find ways of influencing, even if the parties to the Peace Agreement do not appear willing to implement their commitments. 35 Cf. Agreement on Sierra Leone, 1996-1999, ; 1990-1996 Agreement on the Liberian Conflict, ; Israeli-Palestinian Peace Agreement, 1993-present, in . In modern history, some persistent conflict situations may be brought to a ceasefire before being dealt with through a peace process in which a series of discrete steps are taken on either side to achieve the mutual goal of peace and the signing of a treaty. 2 Bell, Christine, Peace Agreements and Human Rights, App. See also the increasing number of websites and publications dedicated to making available the text of peace agreements, such as. B means of mediation, ; ==. .