Kamakura Agreement

education.asianart.org/explore-resources/lesson-or-activity/samurai-warrior-codes-comparing-perspectives-from-kamakura: This is a middle school lesson on the Asian Art Museum`s website titled “Samurai Warrior Codes: Comparing Perspectives from the Kamakura, Muromachi, and Edo Period.” Perry returned on February 11, 1854 with an even greater force of eight warships and made it clear that he would not leave until a contract was signed. Perry continued his manipulation of the environment, such as staying away from lower-ranking officials, involving the use of force, measuring the port, and refusing to meet at the scheduled negotiating venues. Negotiations began on March 8 and lasted about a month. Each group shared a performance when Perry arrived. The Americans did a technology demonstration and the Japanese did a sumo wrestling show. [16] While the new technology rested the Japanese people, Perry was not impressed by the sumo wrestlers and felt that this performance was senseless and humiliating: “This exhibition only ended when the twenty-five successively showed their immense strengths and savage qualities.” [17] The Japanese side yielded to almost all of Perry`s demands, with the exception of a trade agreement along the model of previous U.S. treaties with China, which Perry wanted to postpone to a later date. The main controversy focused on the choice of ports to open, with Perry stubbornly refusing Nagasaki. The contract, written in English, Dutch, Chinese and Japanese, was signed on March 31, 1854 at present-day Kaikō Hiroba (Port Opening Square) Yokohama, a place adjacent to the present Yokohama Archives of History.

[15] In the short term, the U.S. was pleased with the deal, as Perry achieved his priority goal of breaking Japan`s sakoku policy and laying the groundwork for protecting U.S. citizens and a possible trade deal. On the other hand, the Japanese were forced into this trade and many saw it as a sign of weakness. The Tokugawa shogunate was able to indicate that the treaty had not really been signed by the Shogun or any of his Rōjū and that it had, at least temporarily, avoided the possibility of an immediate military confrontation. [21] Externally, the treaty resulted in the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Japan, the “Harris Treaty” of 1858, which allowed for the creation of foreign concessions, extraterritoriality for foreigners, and minimum import taxes for foreign goods. . . .