Explain The Method Of Agreement
One of the main features of scientific methodology is verification and falsification. Remember Kap. 4, that a call to ignorance is made if we deduce for lack of evidence that something is the case or not. While there are times when a lack of evidence should lead to a judgment that the original claim is unsubstantiated (as in the case of a criminal court), this is not the case in scientific practice. The accompanying variation method says that if we find in a number of situations leading to a particular effect, a certain property of the effect, which varies with the variation in a factor common to these situations, then we can deduce this factor as cause. Symbolically, the method of accompaniment variation as (with ± representing displacement): Mill`s methods should not be surprising, as these rules articulate some of the principles we use implicitly in cause-and-effect reasoning in everyday life. However, it is important to respect the limits of these rules. Mill`s Methods are five methods of induction described by the philosopher John Stuart Mill in his book A System of Logic, published in 1843.  That they shed light on questions of causality. For a property to be a necessary condition, it must always be present when the effect is present. As is the case, it is in our interest to examine cases where the effect is present and to take into consideration the properties present and those that are considered as “possible necessary conditions”.
Obviously, not all properties missing when the effect is present can be necessary conditions of action. In comparative politics, this method is more generally referred to as the most diverse system design. Symbolically, the concordance method can be represented in the most possible way: scientists develop a hypothesis from observed data. A hypothesis is a preliminary and verifiable explanation of the facts. Theoretical scientists propose hypotheses to explain natural phenomena, while experimental scientists test these hypotheses. Unlike the four previous inductive methods, the accompanying variation method does not involve the elimination of circumstances. The change in size of one factor leads to a change in the size of another factor. Mills` rule of conformity states that if, in all cases where an effect occurs, there is only one preceding C factor that is common to all of these cases, then C is the cause of the effect. According to the table in this example, the only thing you ate was the oyster. So, if we apply the rule of concordance, we conclude that eating oysters is the cause of diseases. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) was an English philosopher who wrote on a wide range of subjects from language and science to political philosophy.
The so-called “Mills” methods are five rules of search for causes that he proposed. It has been assumed that some of these rules were actually discussed by the famous Islamic scientist and philosopher Avicenna (980-1037). Mill`s methods can only give indications of probable causes; They don`t really have an explanation. The discovery of causalities is an important step towards understanding the world, but it is only part of what we need. We also need to understand how and why some cases of causality work the way they do. The answers to these questions take us beyond the ability to identify cause-and-effect relationships. We need to develop theories and hypotheses that are the basis of scientific thought. According to the residue method, if we have a number of factors that are assumed to be the causes of a number of effects and we have reason to believe that all but one factor are the cause of all the effects, we should conclude that C is the cause of the remaining effect. . .